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一種新的免疫刺激物—海藻多糖

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一種新的免疫刺激物—海藻多糖

發布日期:2019-05-06 作者: 點擊:

    褐藻.jpg

BG捕鱼    RUJIN,SUOYOUDEDONGWUSHENGCHANDOUHUIYONGDAOYIMIAO。ZHESHIBAOHUDONGWUJIANKANGDEYIXIANGZHONGYAOJISHU,RANERTAHUIGEIYANGZHIYEZHECHANSHENGJUDADECHENGBEN。YINCI,RUHESHI“JIBINGYUFANGXINGMIANYICELVEDEXIAOLVHESHOUYIZUIDAHUA”XIANDEFEICHANGZHONGYAO。WEIDADAOZHEYIMUDE,KEXUEJIAMENZHENGBUDUANTANSUOXINDEFANGFA。QIZHONGYIZHONGFANGFAJIUSHISHIYONGCONGHAIZAOZHONGTIQUDEXINFENZI,YIBANGZHUYOUHUADONGWUJITIDETIANRANFANGYUXITONGYIJIQIDUIMIANYICELVEDEYINGDAFANYING。JITIDUIBINGYUANTIRUQINDEYINGDAFANYINGSHIJIANLIZAILIANGZHONGLEIXINGDEMIANYIJICHUSHANGDE:JIXIANTIANXINGMIANYIYINGDAHESHIYINGXINGMIANYIYINGDAHUOHUODEXINGMIANYI。

BG捕鱼      1 XIANTIANXINGMIANYILI

      XIANTIANXINGMIANYIYINGDAFANYINGSHIDONGWUJITIDIYUBINGYUANTIRUQINDEDIYIDAOFANGXIAN。TAHUIBEILIJIJIHUOBINGKUAISUFAHUIZUOYONG。SUOYOUDONGWUJUNYONGYOUZHEZHONGMIANYIYINGDAFANYINGJIZHI。DONGWUJITIBULUNHESHIYUDAOGAIBINGYUANTI,TADOUSHIXIANGTONGDE。DANSHI,JITIDEZHEZHONGMIANYIJIZHIBUHUIDUICIGANRANYINZICHANSHENGJIYIZUOYONG。CILEIMIANYIDEZUOYONGJIZHIQUJUEYUSHIBIEBEIDUOZHONGBINGYUANTIGONGYOUDEFENZIMOSHI,ZHUYAOWEIBINGYUANTIDEMOZUFEN (DUOTANG - DANBAIFUHEWU )。NENGGOUYINFAXIANTIANXINGMIANYIYINGDAFANYINGDEGEZHONGYAOSUYOU:

      ●WULIPINGZHANG (NIANMO、PIFU、NIANYE、RONGMAODENG )。

      ●TUNSHIXIBAO,RUJUSHIXIBAO。

      ●ZIRANSHASHANG (NK)XIBAO。

BG捕鱼      ●MOUXIEXIBAOYINZI。TAMENKEGEIJITICHUANSONGWEIXIANJINGGAOXINHAO。

BG捕鱼      ●BUTIXITONG。

      ● Toll- YANGSHOUTI (TLR)。ZHESHIJINNIANLAICAIFAXIANDEYILEIMOSHOUTIJIAZU。TAMENKONGZHIZHUCHUANRANXINGYINZIFANGYUFENZIDEBIAODASHUIPING (TONGGUOXIAOYINGXIBAOHEJIHUOSHIYINGXINGMIANYIXITONGZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEQIZUOYONG )。YUXIANTIANXINGMIANYIYINGDAFANYINGYOUGUANDEYAOSUKETONGGUOCHANSHENGXIAOYINGXIBAO (XIBAOYINZIDENG )ZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEXINGDIZUOYONGYUBINGYUANTI。JINJIEZHUHOUZHEJIANGHUITONGGUOJIHUO T XIBAOHE B XIBAOERJIFAHUODEXINGMIANYI。

      2 HUODEXINGMIANYI

BG捕鱼      YUXIANTIANXINGMIANYIYINGDAFANYINGBUTONG,HUODEXINGHUOSHIYINGXINGMIANYIYINGDAFANYINGJINJIZHUIDONGWUCAIYOU。ZAISHOUCIJIECHUDAOMOUZHONGBINGYUANTI(SHOUCIGANRAN )DEGUOCHENGZHONG,TAQIZHUJITIDIERDAOFANGXIANDEZUOYONG,TADEJIHUOXUYAOHUAFEIYIDINGDESHIJIAN,JIQIANFUQI (BIAO 1)。

表1.png

      DANSHI,ZHEZHONGMIANYIYINGDAFANYINGNENGDUIQIYUDAODEBINGYUANTICHANSHENGJIYI,DANGJITIZAICIJIECHUDAOZHEXIEBINGYUANTISHI,TADEQIANFUQIJIUHUISUODUANHENDUO,QIEMIANYIXITONGJIHUZAIBINGYUANTIRUQINDETONGSHIZUOCHUFANYING。HUODEXINGMIANYIDETEYIXING:TAKEYISHIBIECHUYIJINGYUDAOGUODEBINGYUANTIDEFENZIMOSHI (TU 1)。

     圖一.png 有助于適應性免疫的各種要素如下:

      ● T XIBAO;

      ● B XIBAO;

      ●KANGTI;

BG捕鱼      ●MIANYIQIUDANBAI、Toll- YANGSHOUTI (TLR)、NENGCHANSHENGKANGTI (AB)DEJIANGXIBAO + XIANTIANXINGMIANYIXIAOYINGXIBAODEOULIANFUZHUYINZI。

      3 HAIZAO——MIANYIZENGQIANGJIDEYIZHONGXINLAIYUANZUIJINJINIAN,YUELAIYUEDUODEYANJIULUNWENJIESHAOLEHAIZAODUOZHONGSHENGWUXUEYINGYONGJIAZHIDEQIANYANYANJIUCHENGGUO,YOUQISHIMIANYIJILI,ZHUYAOGUANZHUQIMOUXIEZUFEN—HANLIUDUOTANG。ZHEXIEFUZADETANSHUIHUAHEWUBUHUICHUXIANZAILUSHENGZHIWUTINEI。TAMENBEIRENWEIKETONGGUODUOZHONGSHANGBUTAIQINGCHUDETUJINGYINGXIANGDONGWUDEMIANYIXITONG。

      4 HANLIUDUOTANG

BG捕鱼      DUOTANGSHIYILEIZAIJIEGOUSHANGJUYOUDUOYANGXINGDEDAFENZIWUZHI,ZAIZIRANJIEFENBUXIANGDUIJIAOGUANG。DUOTANGYOUJIANDANXINGSHIDEDUOTANGHEFUZAXINGSHIDEDUOTANGERZHONG。YUDANBAIZHIHEHESUANBUTONG,DUOTANGHANYOUZHONGFUDEJIEGOU,SHIDANTANGCANJITONGGUOTANGGANJIANLIANJIEZAI——QIDETANGLIAN。YINCI,TAMENNENGGOUXINGCHENGDUOJUWUDELIANSHIJIEGOU,ZHEZHONGJIEGOUKEYISHITONGZHIDE(TONGXINGDUOTANG),YEKEYIBUSHITONGZHIDE(YIXINGDUOTANG )。JIANDANXINGSHIDEDUOTANGSHITONGXINGDUOTANG,YOUYIZHONGLEIXINGDETANGFENZIZUCHENG,SHIJISHANGYIXIANXINGFANGSHILIANJIEZAIYIQI(RUZHILIANDIANFEN、TANGYUAN、XIANWEISU )。BENZHISHANG,TAMENSHIJIEGOUXINGHUAHEWU,HUOSHIJITIYIRONGYISHIFANGDEXINGSHICHUCUNDENENGLIANGWUZHI。YINWEITAMENNENGGOUZAIMEIGEZUCHENGDANYUANDEBUTONGSHUIPINGSHANGJIANLILIANJIE,YINCITAMENDEJIEGOUKENENGHUIBIANDEGENGWEIFUZA,ZHESHIDEQIKEZAISANWEIKONGJIANSHANGSHENGCHUHENDUOFENZHIJIEGOU。ZHEXIESHIYOUFENZHIDETONGXINGDUOTANG。

      5 DUOTANGJIEGOUSHANGDEBIANYIXING

      核酸中的核苷酸以及蛋白質中的氨基酸僅能以一種方式相互聯接,而寡糖和多糖中的單糖分子卻可在多個位點上相互聯接,從而形成多種類型的線性或分枝結構。例如,四種不同的單糖分子可能的排列組合數可得到高達 35 560 種獨特的四聚糖,而四種氨基酸僅能形成 24 種不同的排列組合。這就解釋了以下的事實,即在大分子中,多糖攜帶的生物學信息最大,因為它們具有最大的結構變異能力。另外,多數海洋多糖具有的特性之一是它們的多聚陰離子特性,這為它們提供了較強的化學反應性 (表 2)。表2.png

      ZAIZHEXIEYINLIZIDUOTANGZHONG,DADUOSHULAIZIJUZAODEYINLIZIDUOTANGSHIHANLIUDUOTANG:BANRUTANGJUTANG (QIONGZHI、JIAOCHACAIJIAO )、SHICHUNJUTANG,TUOYANGBANRUTANGJUTANG。LIRU,SHICHUNJUTANGSHIYIZHONGSHUIRONGXINGDUOTANG,KEJIANYUSHICHUNMU (SHICHUNSHU、HUTAISHU )HAIZAOZHONG,YILIU、SHULITANG、MUTANGHEAIDUTANGQUANSUANHEPUTAOTANGQUANSUANWEIQIZHUYAODEZUFEN。SHICHUNJUTANGDEJIEGOUXIANSHICHUJUDADEFUZAXINGHEBIANYIXING,

ZHEYUZHENGSHIQIJUYOUDALIANGGUATANGZHONGFUJIEGOUMOSHIXIANGYIZHI。YIJINGBAODAODEZHUYAOZHONGFUSHUANGTANGDANYUANSHI 3- LIUSUAN - SHICHUNJUTANGSHUANGTANGQUANSUAN,QIHANYOUPUTAOTANGQUANSUANHUOAIDUTANGQUANSUAN。LINGWAI,ZAI 3- LIUSUAN - SHULITANGDANYUANDELIANJIECHU /O-2 TANGGANJIANCHUNENGFAXIANHANYOUHANLIUMUTANG (DAITIAIDUTANGQUANSUANHEPUTAOTANGQUANSUAN )DEDUOGEZHONGFUMOSHI。DUOTANGJIEGOUSHANGDEZHEZHONGJUDADEBIANYIXINGWEIQIZAIGAODENGSHENGWUZHONGZHENGQUEDIAOJIEGEZHONGXIBAO - XIBAOJIANDEXIANGHUZUOYONGTIGONGLELINGHUOXING。TEBIESHI,LIUSUANHUAZUOYONGSIHUYOUYIYUCONGHAIYANGJUZAOZHONGHUODEDEDUOTANGSHANGJIANDAODEGEZHONGSHENGWUHUOXING。

      6 DUIDONGWUMIANYIDEYINGXIANG

      研究顯示,廣泛分布于巨藻的含硫多糖具有抗感染 (抗病毒、抗菌、抗腫瘤 )、抗氧化、和抗血栓的活性,還具有免疫調節活性,表現為其具有能刺激免疫應答反應或控制免疫細胞活性以緩和炎癥等不良作用的價值 (圖 2)。圖二.png

      HAIYANGHANLIUDUOTANGFAHUIZUOYONGDETUJINGZHIYI (ZUIJINYIJINGDEDAOGUANZHU )SHIQIDUI TLR(Toll- YANGSHOUTI )DEJIHUOZUOYONG。SHISHISHANG,YUELAIYUEDUODEYANJIUZHENGMING,HAIZAODUOTANGNENGTONGGUOJIEHESHIBIESHOUTI (JISUOWEIDE PRR:MOSHISHIBIESHOUTI )LAIYINGXIANGXIANTIANXINGMIANYIYINGDAFANYING,LIRUBAOKUOQIETEBIESHIJUSHIXIBAODENGTUNSHIXIBAODEGANLUTANGSHOUTIHUO Toll- YANGSHOUTI (TLR)。Toll- YANGSHOUTI (TLRs)SHIYILEIKUAMODANBAI,TAKETONGGUOJIEHEWEISHENGWUDEXIANTIANFENZI (JISUOWEIDEBINGYUANTIXIANGGUANXINGFENZIMOSHI,PAMPs)LAIJIANCECHURUQINDEBINGYUANTI。ZAI TLR SHUIPINGSHANGDE PAMPsJIECHUKEYINFAJILIANFANYING,JIEGUOKEYOUFAYANXINGFANYINGJIYINDEBIAODA。ZAIBURUDONGWUSHANG,ZHEXIEYIJINGDEDAOJIANDINGDESHOUTIANZHAOCONG I~ IIDESHUNXUJINXINGLEBIANHAO (TLR I-TLR II)。TONGGUOJIECHUTAMENGEZIDE PAMPs,TLR NENGGOUTEYIXINGDIJIHUOXINHAOTONGLU,CONGERJIHUOHEYINZI -κB(Nuclear Factor-kappa B,NF-κB)HEHUOHUAYINZIDANBAI I (Activator Protein Ⅰ,API)ZHUANLUYINZI (KEDIAOJIEYANXINGXIBAOYINZIDEBIAODA,RU TNFα、TL-1 HUO IL-6)。YINCI,XIANZAIKANQILAI TLR ZAIHUODEXINGMIANYIYINGDAFANYINGZHONGQIZHUGUANJIANZUOYONG,DANSHI,QIJIHUOSUOCHANSHENGDEXINHAOHUIDAOZHIQITADALIANGXIBAOHEMIANYIXITONGGONGNENGDEJIHUO,ZHESHIDETACHENGWEIXIANTIANXINGMIANYIJIZHIHEHUODEXINGMIANYIDEGUANJIANYAOSU。ZUOWEI TLR JIHUOJIDEMOUXIEHANLIUHAIZAODUOTANG,TAMENSUOJUYOUDEHUOXINGKENENGSHIZHEXIEHAIYANGDUOTANGHEXIJUNZHIDUOTANG (LPS)ZHIJIANZAIJIEGOUSHANGYOUMOUZHONGXIANGSIXINGDEJIEGUO。XIJUNZHIDUOTANGSHICHUXIANZAIXIJUNWAIMOBIAOMIANSHANGDEYIZHONGJIEGOUXINGWUZHI,KEBEIXIJUNTEYIXINGSHIBIEYINZISUOSHIBIE。YOUQISHI,BURUDONGWUZHONGDEXIJUNZHIDUOTANGKEBEI TLR4 TEYIXINGDISHIBIE。

      7 QIANZAIDEYINGYONG

BG捕鱼      KEYIDECHUJIELUN,JIHAIZAOHANYOUDUOTANGXINGSHIDETANGLEI,QIZHONGYIXIEDUOTANG——HANLIUDUOTANG——SHIFUZADEDUOJUYINLIZIJIEGOUWUZHI,TAMENJUYOUDUOZHONGSHENGWUXUETEXING。DALIANGDEYANJIUZHENGSHI,CILEIHANLIUDUOTANGZHONGDEYIBUFEN,YOUQISHIYANZAOJUTANG、JIAOCHACAIJIAOHESHICHUNJUTANG,JUYOUMOUXIEYANXINGYINGDAFANYINGHEMIANYIJIZHIDEZUOYONG。ZHEXIECONGHAIZAOZHONGTIQUDEDUOTANGJINGGUOJIANBIEHEXUANZEHOU,KEYONGZUOCIJIGEZHONGYUJITIFANGYUYOUGUANDEMIANYIJIZHI,YOUQISHIXIANTIANXINGMIANYIJIZHI。ZAIDONGWUSIYANGHEDONGWUJIANKANGLINGYUDEQIANZAIYINGYONGKUANGJIAXIA,YANJIURENYUANTICHULELIANGZHONGFEI - PAITAXINGCELVE:

      ●DINGQILIANXUDIDESHERUHAIZAODUOTANG,MUDESHIZONGTICIJIJITIDEFANGYUGONGNENG:TONGGUODINGQIDISHERUHAIZAODUOTANGERBUJINXINGMIANYIJIEZHONG,KEZENGQIANGJITIDEFANGYUZHUANGTAI。ZHONGFUSHERUKESHIJITIDE“JICHU”MIANYIXITONGDEDAOFAYU,BINGKEZENGQIANGXIANTIANXINGMIANYIDEFANGYUGONGNENG。ZAIYUFANGCELVEDESHANG、XIAYOUSHIYONGHAIZAODUOTANG,KENENGYOUZHUYUTIGAOJIACHUGETIHUOQUNTIDEMIANYIBAOHUSHUIPING,TONGSHIYEYOUZHUYUGENGHAODIKONGZHIJIACHUDEGANRANYALI,YUFANGCHUANRANXINGBINGYUANTIDEZHONGFULIUXING。

      ●ZAIMIANYIJIHUAKUANGJIAXIAYOUDEFANGSHIDISHERUHAIZAODUOTANG:ZUOWEIMIANYIJIHUADEYIBUFEN,HAIZAODUOTANGKEYITIGAOYIMIAODEMIANYIBAOHULI。ZHEWUYIJIANGNENGGOUWEIGAISHANYIMIAOSHERULIANGHEMIANYICHIJIUXINGTIGONGJIHUI,YINERNENGGOUTIGAOMIANYIYUFANGJIHUADEJISHUHEJINGJIXINGNENG。


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關鍵詞:海藻多糖,免疫力

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