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海藻飼料在豬生產中的應用研究

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海藻飼料在豬生產中的應用研究

發布日期:2019-08-08 作者: 點擊:

   海洋植物是海洋生物資源的重要組成部分,是海洋的初級生產者,又是食物鏈中不可替代的部分。海藻是生活在海洋中分布最廣的單細胞植物,能通過光合作用把海洋中的無機物轉化為有機物,含有較為豐富的營養物質,是一種較好的畜禽飼料資源,主要用作飼料添加劑。用于飼料的藻類主要有綠藻和藍藻。綠藻有苦味,營養成分全面但不宜消化;藍藻呈螺旋狀,易培養且色素利用率高,其粗脂肪和粗纖維含量低,無氮浸出物高,適口性好,營養物質的消化率也高。目前,全世界海藻粉年產量達 5×10 5  t,海藻作為畜禽的飼料每年以8 %的速度增長,但我國對海藻飼料的研究還處在初級階段 。大量文獻記載了海藻的抗病毒活性和免疫調節特性,激發了畜牧業從業者的研究興趣,現將海藻飼料的應用研究綜述如下。表1.png

1 HAIZAODEYINGYANGJIAZHI

    HAIZAOHANYOUFENGFUDEDANBAIZHI,BIXUANJISUANZHONGLEIQIQUAN,DIANHANLIANGBIZHIWUSILIAOGAOJIBEISHENZHIJIBAIBEI,HANYOUDALIANGDEFEIHANDANYOUJIHUAHEWU ( YUEZHAN 30 %~ 60 % ) YIJITESHUDESHENGWUHUOXINGCHENGFENHEWEIZHISHENGCHANGYINZI (UGF),HANYOUXIELVSUDENGSESU。HAIZAOFUHANYOU Fe、Mn、Cu、I、Zn DENGKUANGWUZHI,QIHANYOUDEKUANGWUZHIHEWEILIANGYUANSU (20 %~ 30 % ) DADUOYIYOUJITAIXINGSHICUNZAI,BUYIYANGHUA,QISHENGWUXUEXIAOJIAGAO,HAIZAOYOUJITAIKUANGWUZHIGENGYOUZHUYUZHUDEXISHOU。ZHIFANGSUANDABUFENWEIBUBAOHEZHIFANGSUAN,YUEZHANZHIFANGSUANZONGLIANGDE50 %~ 70 %,ZHUYAOSHIYAMASUAN、CIYAMASUANHEERSHITANXISUAN (EPA) DENG。HAIZAOZHONGHANYOUDUOZHONGWEISHENGSU,RUWEISHENGSU A、WEISHENGSU C、WEISHENGSU E HEWEISHENG

素 B 1 、B 2 、B 3 、B 12 等。海藻常規營養成分和小球藻氨基酸含量見表 1 和表 2。表2.png

2 HAIZAOSILIAOZAIZHUSHENGCHANZHONGDEYINGYONGYANJIU

BG捕鱼    HAIZAODEZHUYAOSIYONGJIAZHISHILIYONGQIHANYOUDEHAIZAODUOTANG、GANLUCHUN、BINGXISUAN、HEGANLEI、TIELEI、DAHUANNEIZHIDENGSHENGWUHUOXINGWUZHI。YANJIUBIAOMING,HAIZAOSILIAOJUYOUZENGQIANGZHUJITIMIANYILI、KANGJUN、KANGBINGDU、CUSHENGCHANGDENGSHENGWUGONGNENG。

BG捕鱼2.1 TIGAOMIANYILIHEKANGJUNZUOYONG

    HAIZAODUOTANGJUYOUTIGAOMIANYILIDEZUOYONG。HAIZAOJUYOUMIANYICIJIZUOYONGHEHAIZAOLIUSUANDUOTANG (MSP) KANGYANZUOYONG,JUYOUJIJIDEKANGBINGDUZUOYONG,RUJIHUOLINBAXIBAOZHONGDEXIBAOYINZI,JUYOUXIANZHUDEKANGNINGXUEXINGNENGHEKANGZHONGLIUHUOXING,QIYINGYANGDUIRENLEIHEZHUDEJIANKANGQIZHUJIJIDEYINGXIANG。HAIZAOLIUSUANDUOTANG (MSP) JUYOUSANGEFANGMIANDEYOUDIAN:YISHIHENRONGYIQIFANYING,ERSHIYINWEIZISHENCUNZAILIUSUANZIYOUJI,JUBEIHENDUOGONGNENG,SANSHIJUYOUWEIYIXING,YINWEIZAIGAODENGZHIWUZHONGBUCUNZAIHAIZAOLIUSUANDUOTANG。LIYINGQUANDENG(1995) GEIXIAOSHUKOUFUHEZAOGANTANGZHI,FAXIANXIAOSHUDEMIANYIQIGUANDEZHONGLIANGHEWAIZHOUXUEQINGRONGXUESUJUNYOUTIGAO;HEZAOSUANNA、HEZAODIANFENHEHEZAOLIUSUANZHIJUNNENGTIGAOFEITEYIXINGMIANYIGONGNENG;ZICAIDUOTANG、CHUNCAIDUOTANGYEYOUTIGAOZHUJITIMIANYILIDEZUOYONG 。HAIZAODUOTANGYIKEZUOWEIGONGNENGXINGXIANWEI

DEQITAYISHENGYUANBUCHONG。

    HAIZAOZHONGHANYOUBINGXISUAN、TIEXILEI、XIUHUAFENLEIHEHAIZAOLIUSUANDUOTANG(MSP) DENGDOUYOUKANGJUNZUOYONG,NENGJIANGDIMEIJUNDUSUDUIZHUZHIFANZHI、SHENGCHANGHEJIANKANGDAILAIDEBULIYINGXIANG。HAIZAOLIUSUANDUOTANG (MSP) NENGCUJINCHANGDAOZHONGNIANDANBAIDEFENMI,NIANDANBAIJUEDINGZIZHUDECHANGDAOJIANKANG,YINWEITAMENNENGGOUXIFUYIXIEBINGDU,TONGSHIYIZHIBUTONGDEZHIBINGJUNZAICHANGBISHANGDEZHANJIE。ZIZHUXIAOHUADAORONGMAODESHENGCHANGHEFAYUHENCUIRUO,JUNQUNDEPINGHENGHENRONGYIBEIDAPOERXIANRUJUNQUNSHIDIAO。ZAIZIZHUCHUSHENGDEDI 1 TIANJIUJIAGUXIAOHUADAOCAINENGQUEBAOXIAOHUADAODEZHENGCHANGFAYU,HUANNENGBIMIANDUANNAIDENGZHUYAOSHIQIXIAOHUADAOJIBINGDEFASHENG。MAWEIZAOSUFUHEWUKEYIZHIJINSEPUTAOQIUJUN、DA

BG捕鱼CHANGGANJUN、PUTONGBIANXINGJUNDESHENGCHANG。DUOJIEPAOXIEZAO、SHICHUN、CHEWANGZAO、DUNXINGAODINGZAOZHONGDEXIUFENHUAHEWU、TIEXILEIDENGJUYOUKANGSHENGSUDETEXING。HAIZAOZHONGKANGJUNWUZHIBUHUISHIXIJUNCHANSHENGKANGYAOXING,DUIHUANJINGBUHUIZAOCHENGBULIANGYINGXIANG。

    HAIZAOFENKETIGAOZHUDEKANGBINGHEKANGYINGJINENGLI。LIUCHUNREN (1996) DENGYANJIUFAXIANHAIZAOFENKEJIANGDIZHUFABINGLV 5 %。Rooke DENG (2003) ZAIMUZHURILIANGZHONGZHUIJIAHAIZAOFEN,KESHIDUANNAIZIZHUXUEQINGZHONG IgG DEHANLIANGZENGGAO。YOUZILIAOBIAOMING,ZAIBURUMUZHUSILIAOZHONGTIANJIA 4 %DEHAIZAOFEN,KEZENGJIAMUZHUDEMIRULIANG,JIAKUAIZIZHUSHENGCHANGFAYUDESUDU,TIGAODUANNAITIZHONG,TIGAOZIZHUCHENGHUOLV,JIANSHAOJIBINGDEFASHENG 。JIMEIDAXUE(2008)ZAIZHUDERILIANGZHONGYINGYONGHAIZAOYINGYANGQIANGHUAJI,JIEGUOBIAOMINGZHUDEJIANKANGMINGXIANDEDAOGAISHAN,TIGEJIANZHUANGHUOPO,FABINGLVXIAJIANG,JUYOUMIANYICUJINZUOYONG 。SUXIAOJIANDENG (2011,YI ) ZAIRENSHEN 109 d MUZHURILIANGZHONGZHUIJIAHAIZAOFENZHIZHIZIZHUDUANNAI,KEZENGJIAMUZHUCHURUZHONG IgG DEHANLIANG,ZIZHUCHUSHENGDI5 TIANHEDI 12 TIANXUEQINGZHONG IgG DEHANLIANGYEYOUSUOZENGJIA,JINYIBUZHENGMINGLEMUZHURILIANGZHONGZHUIJIAHAIZAOFENKEZENGQIANGZIZHUDEMIANYIGONGNENG 。

2.2 TIGAOZHUDESHENGCHANXINGNENG

    海藻粉能顯著提高豬的生產性能。劉純仁 (1996) 等在生長豬日糧中添加 2 %~ 3 %海藻粉,日增重提高 18 %,節省精飼料 3 %~ 4 %,料肉比達 3.1 ∶ 1 ~ 3.0 ∶ 1 。王永忠等 (1998) 在生長豬的日糧中添加 3 %~ 5 %的野生海藻粉可使豬的平均增重提高 5 %~ 10 %,頭均耗料量降低 4 %~ 8 %,頭均產品成本降低 14 %~ 30 %,與姜錦鵬等 (1999) 、高和坤等 (2000)  利用野生海藻在豬飼料中的研究應用相一致。王永忠等 (1998) 在本地雜交斷奶仔豬日糧中添加含有海藻粉的復合預混料,結果表明在育肥豬日糧中配用以野生海藻粉為主的復合預混料,試驗組較對照組日增重提高了 10.61 % ( P < 0.05),頭均耗料量降低了 7.15 %,經濟效益提高了 13.98 %。周蔚等 (2005)在 40 日齡三元雜交豬的日糧中分別添加 0.5 %、1.0 %的小球藻,結果表明:豬的采食量較對照組分別提高了 14.9 %和 18.9 % ( P < 0.05),料肉比提高了 11.9 %和 15.2 % ( P< 0.05),日增重提高了 2.7 %和 3.1 % ( P > 0.05)  。黃禮光等(2000)在10日齡的仔豬日糧中分別添加0.2 %、0.5 %、1.0 %、1.5 %的螺旋藻,試驗組增重均高于對照組,且隨著螺旋藻含量的增加,增重增加,成活率提高,料重比下降。韋啟德等 (2000) 選用 40 頭 35 日齡的杜長大三元雜交斷奶仔豬,用 1 %的螺旋藻代替 1 %的國產魚粉。結果表明,1 %螺旋藻替代魚粉添加到日糧中可提高斷奶仔豬日增重15.41 % ( P < 0.05),降低料重比 9.95 % ( P < 0.05),還可增進食欲、提高采食量 3.93 % ( P > 0.05)、減少斷奶仔豬腹瀉的發生  。何英俊等(2006)選擇體重15 kg左右健康金華豬,分別在日糧中添加復方螺旋藻提取物 1 g/kg、1.5 g/kg,與對照組相比,試驗組平均日增重分別提高了 9.52 % ( P < 0.05) 和13.33 %( P <0.05),平均飼料轉化率提高了5.1 %( P < 0.05),復方螺旋藻提取物能明顯提高金華豬的生產性能。海藻飼料對豬有明顯的促生長作用。

2.3 GAISHANZHUROUPINZHI

    愛爾蘭科克大學和都柏林大學聯合研究了在豬日糧中添加海藻提取物 ( 海帶多糖和巖藻多糖 ) 對肉質的影響。研究檢測了在 4 ℃保存 15 d 的豬排的 pH、表觀顏色和微生物指標,結果表明海藻提取物并不影響衡量豬肉質量和貨架期的標準,但飼喂海藻提取物可以顯著降低豬排的脂質氧化。何英俊等 (2006) 選擇體重 15 kg 左右健康金華豬,分別在日糧中添加復方螺旋藻提取物1g/kg、1.5 g/kg;與對照組相比,瘦肉率較對照組提高了 1.6 % ( P < 0.05),背膘厚分別降低了7.26 % ( P < 0.05)、9.46 % ( P < 0.05),骨率降低了 0.34 % ( P< 0.05)、0.25 % ( P < 0.05)  。復方螺旋藻提取物能明顯提高金華豬的胴體品質,但不影響眼肌面積和脂肪率。

2.4 HAIZAOSILIAODESHIYITIANJIALIANG

    HAIZAOFENZAIZHURILIANGZHONGDESHIYITIANJIALIANGWEI 0.5 %~ 5 %。HUANGLIGUANGDENG (2000) ZAIRENSHENQIHEBURUQIDEJIANKANGSHENGCHANMUZHURILIANGZHONGFENBIETIANJIA 0.6 %DELUOXUANZAO,SHENGCHANMUZHUZAICHANZISHU、CHUSHENGWOZHONG、DUANNAIWOZHONGDENGJUNYOUYIDINGDEXIAOGUO ( P > 0.05),LUOXUANZAODESHIYITIANJIALIANGWEI 0.5 %~ 1.0 %。WANGQINGJIANDENG (2000) XUANZEZAJIAOZHU,SHIYANZUFENBIETIANJIA 3 %、5 %、7 %DEHAIZAOFEN,JIEGUOBIAOMING:SHIYANZUJIAODUIZHAOZUZHURIZENGZHONGFENBIETIGAO 4.6 %、1.2 %、0.8 %( P > 0.05),TIANJIALIANGYIHAIZAOFENZHANSILIAOLIANGDE 3 %~ 5 %XIAOGUOZUIJIA。YULIUCHUNRENDENG (1996) 、JIANGJINPENGDENG (1999) 、GAOHEKUNDENG (2000) DEYANJIUXIANGYIZHI。DANSHIHAIZAOFENDEZUIJIATIANJIABILI,RENGXUJINYIBUSHIYANQUEDING。

3 HAIZAOSILIAOCUNZAIDEWENTIJIYINGYONGQIANJING

    HAIZAOFENZUOWEISILIAOTIANJIAJI,KEYOUXIAODIGAIJINSILIAODEYINGYANGJIEGOU,TIGAOSILIAODELIYONGLV,GAISHANZHUROUPINZHI,TIGAOZHUDEKANGBINGHEKANGYINGJINENGLI。WOGUOSUIRANYOUHAIZAOSHENGCHANCHANG,DANZHUYAOYONGYURENLEISHIPIN、YAOPINYIJITIQUGONGYEPIN,SHANGWUZHUANMENDEHAIZAOSILIAOJIAGONGQIYE,DUIHAIZAOSILIAODEYANJIUHUANCHUYUQIBUJIEDUAN,XUYAOJIAQIANGDAGUIMOPEIYANGJISHUJIJIAGONGJISHUDEYANJIU。HAIZAOSILIAOSHENGCHANGONGYISHIFOUNENGQUEBAOYINGYANGWUZHIBUSHOUPOHUAISHISILIAOJIAGONGQIYEMIANLINDEYIDANANTI,HAIZAOZHONGGEZHONGWUZHIDEZUCHENGHEHANLIANGCHAYIJIAODA,XUYAOYOUZHENDUIXINGDIXUANZEHAI

BG捕鱼ZAOJINXINGKEXUEPEIWU;CHUQINDUIHAIZAODUOTANGDELIYONGLVDI,HUANXUJINYIBUYANJIULAIJIANSHAOHAIZAODEGAOXIANWEINONGDUHETIGAODANBAIZHIXIAOHUALVZHUANHUAWEIDONGWUSILIAOCHENGFEN;TONGGUOMEICHOUTIFENLICHUHAIZAO ( LVSE、HUISE、HONGSE ) DEHUOXINGCHENGFEN,WEIDONGWUHEZHIWUDEYINGYANGHEJIANKANGTIGONGGENGZIRANHETEBIEDECHANPIN。

    CHUQINSIWEIHAIZAOSILIAO,GAISHANWOGUOYANGZHIYEZHONGPUBIANCUNZAIDELANYONGYAOWUHEYAOWUCANLIUDENGWENTI,BINGKEYITONGGUOCHUQINWEIRENLEITIGONGHANYOUTEYOUSHENGWUHUOXINGWUZHIDEGONGNENGXINGCHUQINCHANPIN。FAZHANHAIZAOSILIAOJIKECHONGFENLIYONGHAIYANGZIYUAN,JIEJUESILIAOYUANLIAOQUEFAWENTI,YOUKEGAISHANSHUIYUSHENGTAIHUANJING,BAOHUSHUISHENGSHENGWUZIYUAN。YINCI,HAIZAOSILIAOSHIYIZHONGJIYOUYANJIUJIAZHI、JINGJIJIAZHIHEKAIFALIYONGQIANLIDE

YESHENGSILIAOZIYUAN。



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